transformers

view markdown


papers

See related papers in the đź“Ś interpretability page.

high-performing

nlp (see also this link)

  • early papers
    • attention is all you need (vaswani et al. 2017) - initial transformer
      • encoder-decoder transformer for seq-to-seq (most new models don’t have special encoder-decoder structure for translation)
      • Semi-supervised Sequence Learning (dai & quoc le, 2015)
        • context vector is weighted sum of context vector at each word
    • ULMFiT (howard & ruder, 2018)
  • BERT (devlin et al. 2018) - semi-supervised learning (predict masked word - this is bidirectional) + supervised finetuning
    • roberta (liu et al. 2019)
    • BART (lewis et al. 2019) - generalizes BERT with sequence-to-squence training: train by (1) corrupting text then (2) reconstruct the original text
    • ELMo (peters…zettlemoyer, 2018) - no word embeddings - train embeddings w/ bidirectional lstm (on language modeling)
    • XLNet (yang…quoc le, 2020)
  • GPT-4 (openai, 2023) - adds multimodal understanding + boosts context length to 32k
  • ELECTRA: Pre-training Text Encoders as Discriminators Rather Than Generators (clark…quoc le, chris manning, 2020)

    • more efficient: rather than standard masked training, use generator-discriminator setup for “token detection”
      • generator replaces many masked tokens with plausible samples - train with MLM
      • discriminator tries to guess which tokens were the masked ones - this is the main model that gets used
  • LongNet: Scaling Transformers to 1,000,000,000 Tokens (ding, …, wei, 2023) - multiscale attention similar to wavelets
  • PaLM: Scaling Language Modeling with Pathways (Google 2022) - 540 Billion params
    • pathways hardware center allows for fast/efficient training
    • discontinuous improvements - at some point large model improves
    • prompt engineering: “Explain yourself” - lets it explain jokes
    • Chinchilla: Training Compute-Optimal Large Language Models (DeepMind 2022)
      • “chinchilla scaling laws” - for compute-optimal training, the model size and the number of training tokens should be scaled equally
  • T0 (sanh…rush, 2022) - multitask training enables better zero-shot generalization
  • more effective training

other

external knowledge / tool use / grounding

  • private
    • https://www.perplexity.ai/ - nice demo adding citation to each fact
    • https://you.com
    • langchain library
    • https://www.fixie.ai/ - provide tools for wrapping APIs in LLM + interaction through router (also default modules for stateful storage, user identity, etc.)
  • review
    • Augmented Language Models: a Survey (meta, 2023) – 3 categories: reasoning, tools, action
  • Demonstrate-Search-Predict: Composing retrieval and language models for knowledge-intensive NLP (khattab, …, liang, potts, & zaharia, 2022) - use high-level programs to use multiple steps between retrieving and reading
  • Toolformer: Language Models Can Teach Themselves to Use Tools (meta, 2023) - model trained to decide which APIs to call, when to call them, what arguments to pass, and how to best incorporate the results into future token prediction
    • Given input, sample position and API call candidates, try them all, and filter out ones which do not reduce next-token loss
      • put correct API calls into prompt, e.g. Pittsburgh is also known as [QA(What ...?→ Steel City)] the Steel City.
    • Training
      • start with few human-written examples of API use
      • LLM generates more uses
      • self-supervised loss determines which calls help with future-token prediction
    • Atlas: Few-shot Learning with Retrieval Augmented Language Models (meta, 2022)
  • retreival-augmented in-context learning (put retrieved info into context, or something very similar)
    • REALM (guu, …, chang, 2020) - retrieves document chunks from corpus and adds them to context, for open-domain QA
    • RETRO (deepmind, 2022) - nearest neighbors to model’s input are retrieved, encoded, and conditioned on with chunked cross-attention
    • Decomposed prompting (khot et al., 2022) - decompose tasks via prompting which are delegated to a shared library of prompting-based LLMs dedicated to these sub-tasks
    • LLM-Augmenter (peng, galley…gao, 2023) - (1) consolidates evidence from external knowledge for the LLM to generate responses grounded in evidence, and (2) revising LLM’s (candidate) responses using automated feedback
  • knowledge base triplets
  • webgpt (nakano, …, schulman, 2022, OpenAI) - allows google search to add world info
  • RLPG (shrivastava, larochelle, & tarlow, 2022) - for code-completion, retrieves functions from a repo
  • memorizing transformers (wu…szegedy, 2022) - knn-based learned indexing + retrieval at training time
    • at test time, you just need to index the entire context and the model will be able to use it
    • kNN Prompting: Learning Beyond the Context with Nearest Neighbor Inference (xu…zhang, 2023) - instead of verbalizer, use nearest-neighbor
      • has dbpedia results
    • kNN-Prompt: Nearest Neighbor Zero-Shot Inference (shi…zettlemoyer, 2022)
  • self-verification
  • ACT-1: Transformer for Actions (2022, Adept) - transformer directly interacts with computer
  • ReAct: Synergizing Reasoning and Acting in Language Models (yao…cao, 2022) - use LLMs to generate reasoning traces + task-specific actions in interleaved manner

adaptation / transfer

These are transformer-specific. For more general notes, see đź“Ś transfer learning or đź“Ś uncertainty. Most of these approaches can be combined with metalearning.

mt-dnn line of work

  • Multi-Task Deep Neural Networks for Natural Language Understanding (xiaodong liu … gao 2019) - multi-task learning on the 9 glue tasks (first layers are shared, then some task-specific layers at top)
  • RAdam: On the Variance of the Adaptive Learning Rate and Beyond (liyuan liu…gao, han, 2020)
    • usually need to do learning-rate warmup when trainin (e.g. with Adam)
    • RAdam = add a term to rectify the variance of the adaptive learning rate in Adam
  • SMART: Robust and Efficient Fine-Tuning for Pre-trained Natural Language Models through Principled Regularized Optimization (jiang…gao, zhao, 2020)
    1. Smoothness-inducing regularization, which effectively manages the complexity of the model
    2. Bregman proximal point optimization to prevent aggressive updating
  • Microsoft Toolkit of Multi-Task Deep Neural Networks for Natural Language Understanding (xiaodong liu…gao, 2020)
  • Posterior Differential Regularization with f-divergence for Improving Model Robustness (hao cheng, …, gao 2021)
    • regularize model posterior difference between clean + noisy inputs (e.g. adversarially attacked inputs)

pruning

  • SparseGPT: Massive Language Models Can Be Accurately Pruned in One-Shot (frantar & alistarh, 2023) - prune GPT-style models to atleast 50% sparsity in one-shot, without any retraining, at minimal loss of accuracy
  • Cramming: Training a Language Model on a Single GPU in One Day (geiping & goldstein, 2022) - tricks for training BERT

prompting

  • https://github.com/dair-ai/Prompt-Engineering-Guide

  • Pre-train, Prompt, and Predict: A Systematic Survey of Prompting Methods in Natural Language Processing (liu…neubig, 2021)
    • from feature-engineering -> architecture engineering -> prompt engineering
    • prompting_typology
  • LAMA Language Models as Knowledge Bases? (petroni…riedel, 2019) - Proposes using fill-in-the-blank (cloze) prompts for extracting knowledge from large language models
    • create LAMA probe - dataset of (subject, relation, object) triplets with templates – find that BERT can recall these relations
    • How to Query Language Models? (adolphs et al. 2021) - query LLMs by example (e.g. “Ronaldo plays for Portugal. Who does Neuer play for?”)
    • How Can We Know What Language Models Know? (jiang … neubig, 2020)
      • mining-based and paraphrasing-based methods to automatically generate high-quality diverse prompts
      • ensemble methods to combine answers from different prompts (e.g. avg logits and more)
    • Noisy Channel Language Model Prompting for Few-Shot Text Classification (min et al. 2022)
      • Querying $P(question answer)$ with Bayes rule outperforms standard querying $P(answer question)$
  • memory-assisted prompt-editing (madaan…yang, 2022) - allows model to “save things to memory” that get added to prompt when needed
  • Prompting Is Programming: A Query Language For Large Language Models (Beurer-Kellner, Fischer, & Vechev, 2022)

(auto)prompting

prompting_hierarchy

  • natural-language prompting
    • iPrompt: Explaining Patterns in Data with Language Models via Interpretable Autoprompting (singh, morris, …gao, 2022)
    • APE: Large Language Models Are Human-Level Prompt Engineers (zhou…ba, 2022)
      • similar to iPrompt, (1) propose prompt candidates with an LLM, (2) score the prompts by the accuracy they yield when using another LLM and (3) regenerate similar prompt candidates
      • experiments on instruction induction datasets + truthful QA
    • FluentPrompt: Toward Human Readable Prompt Tuning (shi, …, zettlemoyer, 2022) - use langevin sampling + fluency constraint to generate prompt
      • experiments relatively weak: 3 sentiment datasets + autoprompt is the only baseline
  • discrete prompting
  • prompt ensembles
    • PromptBoosting: Black-Box Text Classification with Ten Forward Passes (hou, …, jacob andreas, …, zhang, 2022) - get a small pool of prompts, learn a verbalizer (final classification layer) for each, then ensemble them with AdaBoost on LLM output

    • PRBOOST: Prompt-Based Rule Discovery and Boosting for Interactive Weakly-Supervised Learning (zhang…zhang, 2022) - iteratively (1) select high-error examples, (2) have human label them as rules, and (3) use boosting to train model on the new rules + ensemble
      • typical rule generation
        • Snuba (Varma and RĂ©, 2018) generates heuristics based on a small labeled dataset with pre-defined rule types
        • TALLOR (Li et al. 2021a) & GLaRA (Zhao et al. 2021) study rule expansion for NER problem based on lexical information and then select rules based on a hand-tuned threshold
    • PTR: Prompt Tuning with Rules for Text Classification (han et al. 2021) – use logic rules to construct prompts with sub-prompts for many-class text classification (prompt is constructed hierarchically, but only one call is made to the LLM for inference)
  • Prefix-Tuning: Optimizing Continuous Prompts for Generation (li & percy liang, 2021) – optimizes in continuous space for language generation tasks
    • learn to map some parameters $\theta$ through and MLP to generate a starting hidden state $h_i$ – never actually sends the prefix through the network
  • Control Prefixes for Parameter-Efficient Text Generation (clive, cao, & rei, 2022) - allow for adapting the prefix to each input example
  • DART Differentiable Prompt Makes Pre-trained Language Models Better Few-shot Learners (zhang…chen, 2022)
    • reformulating NLP task into differentially optimizing the prompt template + target label (given a pre-trained model)
    • focus on smaller models (Roberta-large + GPT-2) + few training shots
    • fluency constraint to ensure association among prompt embeddings
    • P-Tuning – GPT Understands, Too (liu et al. 2021) – use LSTM to generate prompt embeddings (don’t map to tokens)
  • Knowledgeable Prompt-tuning: Incorporating Knowledge into Prompt Verbalizer for Text Classification (Hu et al. 2021) – add knowledge-base info into the prompt search
  • Learning How to Ask: Querying LMs with Mixtures of Soft Prompts (Qin & Eisner, 2021)
    • use continuous tokens and ensemble (don’t map back to words)
  • WARP: Word-level Adversarial ReProgramming (Hambardzumyan et al. 2021) - add continous tokens (don’t map back to words) + some task-specific parameters for better generalization
  • KnowPrompt: Knowledge-aware Prompt-tuning with Synergistic Optimization for Relation Extraction (Chen et al. 2021) – incorporate relations, visualize learned prompt vectors with t-SNE
  • Calibrate Before Use: Improving Few-Shot Performance of Language Models (zhao, …, dan klein, sameer singh, 2021) - in order to make prompting easier, first calibrate output distr by making it uniform when given null inputs, e.g. “N/A”
  • misc

    • SentiPrompt: Sentiment Knowledge Enhanced Prompt-Tuning for Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis (Zhang et al. 2021) – use sentiment knowledge penalties in the prompt
    • Meta-learning via Language Model In-context Tuning (Chen et al. 2022) – Given new task with new instruction
    • Prompt Programming for Large Language Models: Beyond the Few-Shot Paradigm (Reynolds & McDonell, 2021) – define metaprompts as general wrappers around tasks e.g. “This problem asks us to”
    • Re3: Generating Longer Stories With Recursive Reprompting and Revision (Yang et al. 2022) - generate summaries, then expand and revise with prompts

    • Directional Stimulus Prompting (li, baoling peng, …jianfeng gao, xifeng yan, 2023) - generate hint keywords using small LLM that are put into the prompt when calling large LLM
  • critiques of prompting
    • Do Prompt-Based Models Really Understand the Meaning of their Prompts? (webson & pavlick, 2022) - models can learn fine with prompts that are intentionally irrelevant
  • can benefit from training for promptability
  • Context-faithful Prompting for Large Language Models (zhou, shang, poon & chen, 2023) - ask question in clever way to force LLM to follow it

llm chaining / decoding

many notes are from this thread on chaining models together

  • steering
    • overviews
      • Ai chains: Transparent and controllable human-ai interaction by chaining large language model prompts (wu, terry, & cai, 2022) - chaining LLM steps together: output of one step becomes the input for the next
        • interactive system where users can modify chains + their intermediate results – improves performance + human experience
      • Language Model Cascades (dohan…sutton, 2022) - treat chaining models as probabilistic programs
        • use a probabilistic-programming language (PPL) to define a joint probability model on string-valued random variables, parameterized using LMs, and then condition this model on string-valued observations in order to compute a posterior over string-valued unknowns
        • self-PPLs extend probabilistic graphical models to support more complex joint distributions whose size and “shape” can itself be stochastic
          • e.g., a graph unrolled for a random number of iterations, until a data-dependent stopping criterion is met
          • variables are all text: questions $Q$, answers $A$, and intermediate thoughts $T$
    • posthoc

      • 2023

        • Faithful Chain-of-Thought Reasoning (lyu et al. 2023)

        • Program of Thoughts Prompting: Disentangling Computation from Reasoning for Numerical Reasoning Tasks (chen et al. 2022)

          PAL: Program-aided Language Models (gao…neubig, 2023)

        • Language Models Don’t Always Say What They Think: Unfaithful Explanations in Chain-of-Thought Prompting (turpin, …, bowman, 2023)

          • CoT explanations can be heavily influenced by biasing the model towards certain answers, thereby yielding invalid explanations
          • try biasing in 2 ways: answer is always (A), or setting where prompt suggests a certain answer
        • faithfulness metric = model sensitivity to removing some of the explanation

          • Question Decomposition Improves the Faithfulness of Model-Generated Reasoning (anthropic, 2023) - introduce factored decomposition to improve faithfulness metric
          • Measuring Faithfulness in Chain-of-Thought Reasoning (anthropic, 2023) - in addition to just removing some of the explanation, also add mistakes to it / paraphrase it
            • larger models become less faithful by this metric
        • Do Models Explain Themselves? Counterfactual Simulatability of Natural Language Explanations (chen, zhong, …, steinhardt, yu, mckeown, 2023)

        • Causal Proxy Models for Concept-based Model Explanations (wu…potts, 2023)

        • Two Failures of Self-Consistency in the Multi-Step Reasoning of LLMs (chen, …, bowman, cho, 2023) - models fail at these 2 tasks:

          • hypothetical consistency (the ability for a model to predict what its output would be in a hypothetical other context)
          • compositional consistency (consistency of a model’s outputs for a compositional task even when an intermediate step is replaced with the model’s output for that step)
      • Chain of Thought Prompting (wei et al. 2022)
        • in few-shot prompts, don’t just provide answer but also reasoning
        • model output then provides reasoning + answer
        • Self-Consistency Improves Chain of Thought Reasoning in Language Models (wang, wei, schuurmans, quoc le, … zhou, 2022) - use output samples rather than greedy and return the most consistent final answer in the set
        • Challenging BIG-Bench Tasks and Whether Chain-of-Thought Can Solve Them (suzgun, …, quoc le, …, jason wei, 2022)
        • self-ask (Press et al., 2022) - LLM asks itself (and then answers) follow-up questions before answering the initial question
        • Text Classification via Large Language Models (sun…wang, 2023) - add clues to the prompt
        • Let’s Do a Thought Experiment: Using Counterfactuals to Improve Moral Reasoning (ma, …, chen, 2023) - counterfactuals help improve CoT
        • RCOT: Detecting and Rectifying Factual Inconsistency in Reasoning by Reversing Chain-of-Thought (xue et al. 2023)
        • SelfCheck: Using LLMs to Zero-Shot Check Their Own Step-by-Step Reasoning (miao, teh, & rainforth, 2023)
      • scratchpads Show Your Work: Scratchpads for Intermediate Computation with Language Models (nye et al. 2021)

      • selection inference (creswell et al. 2022) - generate set of facts, then iteratively generate inferences from the facts to yield the final answer

      • least-to-most prompting (zhou…quoc le et al. 2022) - prompt LLM with context showing how to reduce into subproblems; then LLM sequentially solves the subproblems, using the previous answers

      • Generated Knowledge Prompting for Commonsense Reasoning (liu…hasjishirzi, 2021) - generate knowledge from an LLM then provide it as additional input when answering a question

      • maieutic prompting (jung et al. 2022) - generate a tree of all explanation of the form “True, because…”, “False, because…” then query LLM with these as prompts
        • then use Max-SAT to try to satisfy as many relations between the model explanations as possible to come up with the true answer
        • tree of thoughts (yao et al. 2023) - LLM generates a tree of intermediate answers and preform steps such as backtracking
      • review on self-verification (pan…wang, 2023)

        • LM vs LM: Detecting Factual Errors via Cross Examination (cohen et al. 2023)
          • Thread of papers combating hallucination
    • training
      • verifiers (cobbe et al. 2021) - train model to judge whether an answer and thought are likely to be “valid”
      • subgoal search (czechowski et al. 2021) - train model to generate subgoals then solve them in a graph
      • STaR “Self-taught reasoner” (zelikman…goodman, 2022)
        • first, finetune on observed $(Q, T, A)$ triplets, where $T$ is a rationale
        • then, impute unknown $T_i$ given dataset of pairs $(Q_i, A_i)$ by sampling until finding a $T_i$ which leads to the correct answer
    • robotics-specific

misc

direct weight inspection

Overview of mechanistic interpretability (nanda, 2022+) + review paper (rauker…hadfield-menell, 2023)

  • Transformer visualization via dictionary learning: contextualized embedding as a linear superposition of transformer factors (yun, chen, olshausen, lecun, 2021) - investigate LLM embeddings of different words using dictionary learning
    • LLMs produce interesting contextualized word embeddings
    • dictionary elements (of activations across layers) correspond to meaningful things
    • dictionary element has size $d$, the embedding size
      • given list of sentences $S$, training matrix has size $\left(\underbrace{\text{num_layers}}{\text{12 for BERT}} \cdot \sum{s \in S} \text{len(s)}\right) \times \underbrace{d}_{\text{768 for BERT}}$
    • dictionary coefficient: maps (text, layer, sequence_index) $\to$ coefficient
      • extract $d$-dimensional embedding for text at specified layer & sequence_index
  • Neuron-level Interpretation of Deep NLP Models: A Survey (sajjad et al. 2022)
    • previous works generally use pre-specified concepts, and focus on
      • concept search - given a neuron find its concept(s)
      • neuron search - (ii) given a concept find its matching neuron(s)
    • concept search
      • visualization, e.g. karpathy, johnson, fei-fei li, 2015 visualize LSTM head response in text
      • elicit top-k ngram responses on a corpus, which are then labelled manually (kadar et al. 2017)
      • elicit top-k activating sentences from a corpus, which are then summarized using a parse tree into a synthetic explanation (na…kim, 2019)
        • limitation: the explanation may be ungrammatical and biased towards something arbitrary (like reptition)
      • input maximization (e.g. textattack, poerner et al. 2018)
    • Evaluating Neuron Interpretation Methods of NLP Models (fan…sajjad, 2023) - metric is how well evaluation from one method matches the other ones
  • A Circuit for Indirect Object Identification in GPT-2 small (wang, …, steinhardt, 2022)
    • explanation encompasses 26 attention heads grouped into 7 main classes
    • task: indirect object identification - “When Mary and John went to the store, John gave a drink to ___” should be “Mary”
    • circuit
      • identify all previous names
      • remove duplicated names
      • output remaining name
  • Interpretability at Scale: Identifying Causal Mechanisms in Alpaca (wu…, potts, goodman, 2023) - propose boundless DAS and automatically identify a circuit for math
  • N2G: A Scalable Approach for Quantifying Interpretable Neuron Representations in Large Language Models (foote, nanda, …, barez, 2023) - explain each neuron in a graph
  • Finding Skill Neurons in Pre-trained Transformer-based Language Models - some individual neurons are predictive of the final task (dubbed “skill neurons’)
  • thread (elhage…olah, 2021)
  • all layers are same dimension and each attention block adds a vector to it
  • Although they’re parameterized as separate matrices, $W_O W_V$ and $W_Q^T W_K$ can always be thought of as individual, low-rank matrices
    • $x \in \mathbb R^{d_{embed} \times d_{sequence}}$: $d_{embed}$ can be hundreds - tens of thousands
    • $W_Q, W_K, W_V \in \mathbb R^{d_{attn} \times d_{embed}}$
      • $W_Q^TW_k \in \mathbb R ^{d_{embed} \times d_{embed}}$
    • $W_O \in \mathbb R^{d_{embed} \times d_{attn}}$: projects attention values back to embedding dimention
      • $W_O W_V \in \mathbb R ^{d_{embed} \times d_{embed}}$
    • $W_E \in \mathbb R^{d_{embed} \times d_{vocab}}$ embeds initial tokens and $W_U \in \mathbb R^{d_{vocab} \times d_{embed}}$ undoes the embedding
      • $d_{vocab}$ can be very large, e.g. 50k
    • $A = \text{softmax}(x^TW_Q^TW_kx) \in \mathbb R^{d_{sequence} \times d_{sequence}}$
  • if we have a 0-layer net (e.g. predict next token with linear layer given current token), we just learn bigram log-likelihood
  • 2 circuits
    • QK circuit determines which “source” token the present “destination” token attends back to and copies information from
      • $W_{E}^{T} W_{Q}^{T} W_{K} W_{E} \in \mathbb R ^{d_{vocab} \times d_{vocab}}$
    • OV circuit describes what the resulting effect on the “out” predictions for the next token is
      • $W_{U} W_{O} W_{V} W_{E} \in \mathbb R ^{d_{vocab} \times d_{vocab}}$
  • if a single head increases the probability of both keep… in mind and keep… at bay, it must also increase the probability of keep… in bay and keep… at mind
  • induction heads search previous examples of present token
    • If they don’t find it, they attend to the first token and do nothing
    • if they do find it, they then look at the next token and copy it. This allows them to repeat previous sequences of tokens, both exactly and approximately
    • sometimes can do some kind of “fuzzy” matching
  • tensor/kronecker product $\bigotimes$:
    • Left-right multiplying: Multiplying $x$ by a tensor product $A \otimes W$ is equivalent to simultaneously left and right multiplying: $(A \otimes W) x=A x W^{T}$
    • When we add them, it is equivalent to adding the results of this multiplication: $\left(A_{1} \otimes W_{1}+A_{2} \otimes W_{2}\right) x=A_{1} x W_{1}^{T}+A_{2} x W_{2}^{T}$ Softmax Linear Units
  • replacing activation function with softmax linear unit increases fraction of MLP neurons which are “interpretable”, i.e. correspond to meaningful features
    • however, may “hide” some non-neuron-aligned features by decreasing their magnitude and then later recovering it with LayerNorm
  • the presence of nonlinear activation functions createse an incentive for features to align with this basis and not get superposed
    • if the gains to sparse coding are large enough, this incentive will get overwhelmed
  • ways to combat polysemanticity
    • activation sparsity
    • lateral inhibition / co-occurrence sparsity
    • weight sparsity
    • superlinear activation functions
    • increase neurons per param
  • $\text{SoLU}(x) = x \cdot \text{softmax}(x)$
    • adds lateral inhibition, superlinearity, approximate sparsity
    • changes GeLU, which is approximately $\text{sigmoid}(1.7x) \cdot x$
    • just changing to SoLU decrease performance, had to add LayerNorm afterwards
  • logit lens (2020) - apply unembedding matrix to outputs of each transformer layer
  • Rosetta Neurons: Mining the Common Units in a Model Zoo (dravid, …, efros, shocher, 2023)
  • The Hydra Effect: Emergent Self-repair in Language Model Computations (mcgrath…legg, 2023) - ablations atone attention layer of an LLM cause another layer to compensate

attention variants

editing

  • Editing Large Language Models: Problems, Methods, and Opportunities (yao, …, zhang, 2023)
    • model-editing = data-efficient alterations to a model
  • memory-based
    • SERAC: Memory-Based Model Editing at Scale (mitchell…manning, finn, 2022)
      • keep track of list of edits in external memory and use them as appropriate context at test time (don’t finetune the model)
    • T-Patcher (Huang et al., 2023) and CaliNET (Dong et al., 2022) introduce extra trainable parameters into the feed- forward module of PLMs
  • weight updates
    • Knowledge Neurons in Pretrained Transformers (dai et al. 2021) - integrated gradients wrt to each neuron in BERT, then selectively udpate these neurons
    • ROME: Locating and Editing Factual Associations in GPT (meng, bau et al. 2022 )
      • localize factual associations - causal intervention for identifying neuron activations that are decisive in a model’s factual predictions
        • “causal traces” - run net multiple times, introducing corruptions and then restore states from original non-corrupted forward pass to see which states can restore the original results
        • a small number of states contain info that can flip the model from one state to another
      • change factual associations - modify feedforward weights to update specific factual associations using Rank-One Model Editing (ROME)
      • MEMIT: Mass Editing Memory in a Transformer (meng…, bau, 2022)
      • Aging with GRACE: Lifelong Model Editing with Discrete Key-Value Adapters (hartvigsen, …, palangi, …, ghassemi, 2023)
    • meta-learning
      • KnowledgeEditor: Editing Factual Knowledge in Language Models (de cao, aziz, & titov, 2021) - train a network that takes in input, output, edit and predicts a weight update to the model
      • MEND: Fast model editing at scale (mitchell…finn, manning, 2022)
        • a collection of small auxiliary editing networks that use a single desired input-output pair to edit a pre-trained model
        • MEND learns to transform the gradient obtained by standard fine-tuning, using a low-rank decomposition of the gradient
  • REMEDI (hernandez, li, & andreas, 2023) and related activation engineering
    • get “edit vectors” by obtaining embeddings when passing attributes through LLM
    • perform edit by by adding linear transformation of edit vector to prompt embedding
      • then, perform generation with latent embedding
      • learn linear transformation given a dataset of examples with attributes and desired completions
        • (also regularize the model to not change too much on other stuff)
    • activation engineering: Steering GPT-2-XL by adding an activation vector (turner, …, mini, 2023)
      • obtain “steering vector” by embedding a phrase (e.g. love) and adding that vector to the llm embedding during generation
        • they only add the embedding for some layers for some tokens
    • Extracting Latent Steering Vectors from Pretrained Language Models (subramani, …, peters, 2022) - find latent vectors via optimization that cause an LLM to output a particular sequence
      • then, use these vectors to do things like transfer to new tasks / compute textual similarity
  • Editing Models with Task Arithmetic (ilharco, ribeiro, …, farhadi, 2022) - task vector is model weights after task finetuning - model weights before finetuning
    • can use this direction to alter model behavior
  • PURR: Efficiently Editing Language Model Hallucinations by Denoising Language Model Corruptions (chen…sameer singh…kelvin guu, 2023)
  • new datasets
    • MQUAKE: Assessing Knowledge Editing in Language Models via Multi-Hop Questions (zhong…manning, potts, chen, 2023) - introduces benchmark MQUAKE + method MeLLo, which stores edited facts externally while prompting the language model iteratively to generate answers that are consistent with the edited facts
    • COUNTERFACT+ benchmark - checks that edits don’t affect existing info

debugging / interpretation

  • TalkToModel: Understanding Machine Learning Models With Open Ended Dialogues (slack…lakkaraju, sameer singh, 2022) - natural language interface to query model (by converting to commands such as filtering the data / calculating importance)
    • Rethinking Explainability as a Dialogue: A Practitioner’s Perspective (lakkaraju, slack, …, sameer singh, 2022) - interviews with high-stakes users suggest they would like to be able to interact with systems via dialog
  • The Unreliability of Explanations in Few-shot Prompting for Textual Reasoning (ye & durrett, 2022)
  • AdaTest: Adaptive Testing and Debugging of NLP Models (ribeiro & lundberg, 2022)
    • goal: easily specify, discover, and fix undesirable behaviors in an NLP model
    • 2-step iterative algorithm
      1. LLM generates many tests targeting the model’s failures

        • example of a test: f(“I am a black woman”) ≠ neg

        • user selects and organizes the tests and reprompts the LLM to find more

      2. User fixes the tests (e.g. via finetuning)

    • Checklist Beyond Accuracy: Behavioral Testing of NLP models with CheckList (ribeiro…sameer singh, 2020)
      • matrix of general linguistic capabilities + test types
  • Fixing Model Bugs with Natural Language Patches (murty, manning, lundberg, & ribeiro 2022)
    • specify patches with natural language rather than hard rule, allowing them to better handle text
    • finetune a model to combine original model output with output from a patch-conditioned interpreter head
  • LLMs Understand Glass-Box Models, Discover Surprises, and Suggest Repairs (lengerich…caruana, 2023) - use LLMs to analyze tabular data and make suggestions for EBMs
  • Augmenting Interpretable Models with LLMs during Training (singh, askari, caruana, & gao, 2023)

symbolic reasoning

See also notes on đź“Ś comp neuro.

  • GPT-3 Large Language Models are Zero-Shot Reasoners - simply adding “Let’s think step by step” before each answer increases the accuracy on MultiArith from 17.7% to 78.7% and GSM8K from 10.4% to 40.7% with GPT-3

  • Compositional processing emerges in neural networks solving math problems (russin, roland fernandez, …, smolensky, gao, 2021)

  • Modular Deep Learning (pfeiffer, ruder, .., ponti, 2023) - overview of different modular architectures

  • neurocompositional computing (smolensky…gao, 2022)
    • longer tutorial (smolensky, …, gao, 2022)

    • central paradox of cognition is that brain both uses continuous neural symbols but is compositional (smolensky et al. 1992)
      • Compositionality
      • Continuity - the encoding and processing of information is formalized with real numbers that vary continuously
    • 3 challenges
      • compositional generalization
      • data efficiency
      • comprehensibility
    • solution - NECST: Neurally-Encoded Compositionally-Structured Tensor computing (smolensky & legendre, 2006) - basically leverages TPR
      • TPR roles and fillers can both be made continuous
    • neural space vs symbolic space (many different things (e.g. sentences) can mean the same thing)
      • word vectors can be thought of as “soft symbols”
    • want to move from symbolic repr. to neural repr. while keeping interpretability
      • system should output intermediate steps in addition to answer
      • thinking fast (system 1: fast, intuitive) + slow (system 2: slower, logical, derivative)
    • concrete proposals
      • transformer activation vector should encode graph of flow through the network
        • ex. task: regurgitate a sequence
  • TPR: Tensor product variable binding and the representation of symbolic structures in connectionist systems (paul smolensky, 1990) - activation patterns are “symbols” and internal structure allows them to be processed like symbols
    • tensor product representation = TPR
    • TPR slides
    • TPR of a structure is the sum of the TPR of its constituents
      • tensor product operation allows constituents to be uniquely identified, even after the sum (if roles are linearly independent)
    • filler - one vector that embeds the content of the constituent
    • role - second vector that embeds the structural role it fills
  • NECSTransformer: Enhancing the Transformer with Explicit Relational Encoding for Math Problem Solving (schlag, …, gao, 2019)
  • TP-attention
  • beat SOAon free-form math word-problems
  • in addition to K, Q, V, also add a role-vector
    • do element-wise multiplication of outputted vector with role-vector
  • TPR built as tensor product of 2 vectors:
    • filler - the vector returned by attention
      • ex. one head learns “second-argument-of”
    • role - a relation conceptually labeling an edge of the attention graph
  • TP-N2F: Tensor Product Representation for Natural To Formal Language Generation - Microsoft Research (chen…gao, 2019)

  • Logical Transformers: Infusing Logical Structures into Pre-Trained Language Models (wang, huang, …, gao, 2023) - use logical model to alter embeddings before feeding to LLM

sparse experts / ensembles / mixture of experts (MoE)

mixture of experts models have become popular because of the need for (1) fast speed / low memory at test time while still (2) having a large model during training

  • note: nowadays often the “experts” are different MLPs following the self-attention layers
  • A Review of Sparse Expert Models in Deep Learning (fedus, jeff dean, zoph, 2022)
    • sparsity decouples the parameter count from the compute per example allowing for extremely large, but efficient models
    • routing algorithm - determines where to send examples
      • discreteness makes it difficult
        • some works use RL to learn routing
        • standard approach uses gumbel-softmax
        • usually get matrix of similarities between input tokens and experts and route based on these
          • sometimes route to topk experts rather than top1
      • load balancing - usually add an auxiliary loss to encourage equal tokens being sent to different experts
  • non-specialized experts
  • routing notes - make hard decision but still want to learn probabilities
    • straight-through estimator (STE) - take the argmax during the forward pass, while considering the orig- inal probabilities in the backward pass
      • highly biased
    • gumbel-softmax- allows for better sampling
  • specialized experts as fully independent models (sometimes for multi-task learning)
  • Towards Understanding Mixture of Experts in Deep Learning (chen…gu, li, 2022)
  • ensembles (some of these are non-transformer papers)
    • model soups (wortsman…schmidt, 20221) - average weights of finetuned models
    • fit many models into one
      • superposition of many models into one (cheung…olshausen, 2019) - both during training/testing models are indexed via a high-dim key for each task
      • supermasks in superposition (wortsman, …, yosinski, farhadi, 2020) - randomly fixed based net + for each task finds subnet that chieves good performance
        • if task identity not given, correct subnet inferred by minimizing output entropy
      • Git Re-Basin: Merging Models modulo Permutation Symmetries (ainsworth, hayase, & srinivasa, 2022) - algo to merge models even when they haven’t been pretrained together
    • early exit - popular way to speed up inference

      • Multi-exit vision transformer for dynamic inference (Bakhtiarnia, A., Zhang, Q. and Iosifidis, A., 2021)

        • early layers have large activation map so early exist classifier must be complex
        • solution: ViT class token allows early-exit classifier to have constant complexity
      • DeeBERT: Dynamic early exiting for accelerating BERT inference (xin…lin, 2020)

llm querying / causal inference

  • decoding
  • Can Large Language Models Infer Causation from Correlation? (jin…scholkopf, 2023) - introduce Corr2Cause dataset (must infer causal graph from correlational statements), doesn’t test pre-existing knowledge
  • Causal Reasoning and Large Language Models: Opening a New Frontier for Causality (kiciman…tan, 2023)
    • LLMs to be used alongside existing causal methods, as a proxy for human domain knowledge and to reduce human effort in setting up a causal analysis
      • cause-effect pairs, LLM has to discover from graph (tubingen benchmark, neuropathic pain, etc.)
  • Discovering Latent Knowledge in Language Models Without Supervision (burns, ye, klein, & steinhardt, 2022) - identify whether text is true or false directly from a model’s unlabeled activations
  • InferBERT: A Transformer-Based Causal Inference Framework for Enhancing Pharmacovigilance (wang…liu, 2021) - learn + test feature relationships from attention weights
  • CausaLM: Causal Model Explanation Through Counterfactual Language Models (2021) - produce example-level causal model explanations using models finetuned on auxiliary adversarial tasks derived from the causal graph of the problem
  • Investigating Gender Bias in Language Models Using Causal Mediation Analysis (vig, …, shieber, 2020)
    • Applies causal mediation analysis to identify decisive neurons and attention heads responsible for gender bias in large language models
    • Identifies a small handful of decisive attention heads in this case
  • Amnesic Probing: Behavioral Explanation with Amnesic Counterfactuals (elazar, …, goldberg, 2021) - measure the importance of specific info within a model by introducing a causal intervention to erase that information, then observing the causal effects

dataset / module explanation

  • dataset explanation
    • iPrompt: Explaining Patterns in Data with Language Models via Interpretable Autoprompting (singh, morris, …gao, 2022 ) - prompting approach
    • Instruction Induction: From Few Examples to Natural Language Task Descriptions (honovich…bowman, levy 2022) - directly query model with prompt to search for task description
    • D3: Describing Differences between Text Distributions with Natural Language (zhong, snell, klein, & steinhardt, 2022) - finetune an LLM to directly describe difference between 2 text distrs
      • D5: Goal Driven Discovery of Distributional Differences via Language Descriptions (zhong, zhang, …, klein, & steinhardt, 2023) - add dataset-specific prompt + evaluation on larger set of 675 datasets
      • technically this is just learning a classifier, where the classifier is a natural-language string
      • method
        • proposer network generates hypotheses
        • verifier networks looks at all samples in the dataset (since proposer couldn’t fit them all in context) and returns how accurate the hypotheses were
        • some tricks
          • select samples which are “representative” of a class by predicting with another LLM
          • have a pool of 302 manual hypotheses they usefor seeding
      • Goal-Driven Explainable Clustering via Language Descriptions (wang…, zhong, 2023)
        • ClusterLLM: Large Language Models as a Guide for Text Clustering (zhang…shang, 2023)

        • LLMs4OL: Large Language Models for Ontology Learning (giglou et al. 2023) - use prompting to construct ontologies

    • GSCLIP : A Framework for Explaining Distribution Shifts in Natural Language (zhu…james zou, 2022) - automatically explain dataset-level distribution shifts (in image datasets) with natural language
    • MaNtLE: Model-agnostic Natural Language Explainer (menon, zaman, & srivastava, 2023) - train model to generate explanations on simple tables (they do this for classifier outputs but could easily do it directly for data labels)
    • Mass-Producing Failures of Multimodal Systems with Language Models (tong, jones, & steinhardt, 2023)
  • module explanation in natural language
    • Explaining black box text modules in natural language with language models (singh, hsu, …, gao, 2023)
    • Language models can explain neurons in language models (bills, cammarata, …saunders, 2023, openai)
      • goal: explain a neuron
        • step 1: summarize (token, activation) pairs into an explanation
        • step 2: create simulated neuron that outputs activations given tokens
        • step 3: check correlation of simulated neuron outputs with real neuron outputs
      • their unigram baseline summarizes top unigrams into a string
      • they use synthetic generated data to revise the explanation
      • they also do some recovery tests on “neuron puzzles”
    • MILAN: Natural Language Descriptions of Deep Visual Features (hernandez…david bau…torallba, andreas, 2022) - given a neuron, generates a natural-language string that maximizes pointwise mutual information with the image regions in which the neuron is active
      • Scale Alone Does not Improve Mechanistic Interpretability in Vision Models (zimmermann, klein, & brendel, 2023) - perform human eval of interpretability of different units (show human top-activating patches and ask them to decide which of 2 patches will be top-activating)

learning algorithms

  • Empirical results
    • Discovering faster matrix multiplication algorithms with reinforcement learning (deepmind, 2022)
    • Faster sorting algorithms discovered using deep reinforcement learning (deepmind, 2023)
    • Nuclear fusion control (deepmind, 2022)
  • What Can Transformers Learn In-Context? A Case Study of Simple Function Classes (garg, tsipras, liang, & valiant, 2022) - models can succesfully metalearn functions like OLS
    • e.g. during training, learn inputs-outputs from different linear functions
    • during testing, have to predict outputs for inputs from a different linear function
    • also test on slightly harder functions, like decision trees and 2-layer nets
  • Learning a (sparse) linear model
  • What learning algorithm is in-context learning? Investigations with linear models - investigate prompting through synthetic experiments with transformers trained for linear regression
    • Transformers as Algorithms: Generalization and Implicit Model Selection in In-context Learning (li, …, oymak, 2023) - generalization bounds for in-context learning when the input prompt is (1) a sequence of i.i.d. (input, label) pairs or (2) a trajectory arising from a dynamical system
    • Trained Transformers Learn Linear Models In-Context (zhang, frei, & bartlett, 2023)
    • One Step of Gradient Descent is Provably the Optimal In-Context Learner with One Layer of Linear Self-Attention (Mahankali, Hashimoto, Ma, 23)
      • math analysis for: icl can do gradient decent on linear regression
    • Pretraining task diversity and the emergence of non-Bayesian in-context learning for regression (raventos, … ,ganguli, 2023)
  • Teaching Algorithmic Reasoning via In-context Learning (zhou…sedghi, 2022)
  • Looped Transformers as Programmable Computers (giannou, …, jason lee, papailiopoulos, 2023 - use transformers as universal computers by programming them with specific weights
  • Negative results
    • Faith and Fate: Limits of Transformers on Compositionality (dziri…choi, 2023) - LLMs can’t (easily) be trained well for multiplication (and similar tasks)
  • Theory (don’t directly predict algorithm)
    • Meta-learning for Mixed Linear Regression (kong…kakade, oh, 2020) - generalization for linear regression based on which linear tasks were seen before

cool tasks

  • Forecasting Future World Events with Neural Networks (zou…hendrycks, 2022) - takes tasks from metaculus
  • Shortcut Learning of Large Language Models in Natural Language Understanding: A Survey (du et al. 2022)
  • Neurosymbolic Programming for Science (sun…costilla-reyes, 2022)
  • Discovering New Interpretable Conservation Laws as Sparse Invariants (liu…tegmark, 2023) - does not use transformers
  • evaluation without groundtruth
  • Learning from learning machines: a new generation of AI technology to meet the needs of science (berkeley+lbnl+, 2021)

    • do more than predict what will happen, they attempt to offer insight into how or why
    • AI-based language models powering drug discovery and development (liu et al. 2021)
    • BioTranslator: Multilingual translation for zero-shot biomedical classification (xu, woicik, poon, altman, & wang, 2023) - takes a user- written textual description of a new concept and then translates this description to a non-text biological data instance
      • results for biological data, e.g. genes, proteins
      • enables the identification of novel cell types using only a textual description
  • Learning to Generate Novel Scientific Directions with Contextualized Literature-based Discovery (wang…hope, 2023)
    • literature-based discovery (swanson, 1986) - focus on predicting pairwise links between concepts from papers (e.g. drug-disease links)
      • task 1: idea-sentence generation – given sentences describing background context + a seed term, generate a sentence describing an idea
      • task 2: idea-node prediction – given the background context, predict new links between existing concepts (and generate new concepts)
    • forecasting paper titles (blog post)
  • scientific organization (galactica)
    • related but smaller models
    • all data is processed in a common markdown format
    • task-specific tokens to support different types of knowledge (e.g. citations, step-by-step reasoning, different modalities, e.g. proteins)
    • chemical compounds (train on 2 mil / 110 mil from PubChem Compound, authors still want it to focus on text)
      • predict IUPAC name from SMILES formula e.g. CC(C)(C)C(=O)N(CC1=NC(=CS1)C(=O)OC)C2CCCCC2 -> methyl 2-[[cyclohexyl-(2,2-dimethylpropanoyl)]amino] methyl]thiazole-4-

      • moleculenet (wu et al. 2017) classification benchmark (6 tasks)

        • training set examples are trained as text during fitting

          • HIV - classify whether comopund inhibits HIV replication
          • BACE C - binding results (classification + regression) for BACE
          • BBBP - blood-brain barrier penetration(permeability) (binary classification)
          • Tox21 - qualitative toxicity on 12 targets (12-class multilabel binary)
          • SIDER - 27-class multi-class disorders in different organ systems
          • ClinTox - binary toxicity classification
        • ex. for BBBP (one of the 6 tasks) - question is posed in different ways during training

          Here is a SMILES formula:   
             [START_I_SMILES]O=C(O)CCCC1=CC=C(N(CCCl)CCCl)C=C1[END_I_SMILES]
                     
          Question: Will the chemical compound penetrate the blood-brain barrier?
          Answer: No
          
    • protein sequences
      • from 227 million in UniProt, look at only 0.5 million subset (called Swiss-Prot)
      • evaluate protein sequence perplexity
      • protein keyword prediction (predict keywords in UniProt, like “ATP-Binding”, “Cell membrane”)
      • protein function description - compare free-form description to GT UniProt function description

tabular data

llm limitations / perspectives

text explanations (pre-CoT)

clinical papers

  • Self-Verification Improves Few-Shot Clinical Information Extraction (gero et al. 2023)
  • Large Language Models are Few-Shot Clinical Information Extractors (agrawal…sontag, 2022) - use GPT3
  • Health system-scale language models are all-purpose prediction engines (NYU 2023)
  • GPT4 in medicine book (lee, goldberg, & kohane, 2023)
    • For summaries: “Can you check the proposed note and identify any facts in it that don’t appear explicitly in the transcript?”
      • gpt often better at reviewing text than writing it
    • evaluation
      • hard to run gpt clinical trial, although can be used to identify candidates, e.g. biomarkers for followup tests
    • paperwork - replace patient intake form, medical encounter note, prior authorization note (to insurance), universal translator for health info / formatting
  • Summarizing, Simplifying, and Synthesizing Medical Evidence Using GPT-3 (with Varying Success) (shaib…wallace, 2023)
  • SummIt: Iterative Text Summarization via ChatGPT (zhang, …, zhang, 2023)

evaluating with LLMs

  • G-Eval: NLG Evaluation using GPT-4 with Better Human Alignment (liu…zhu, 2023, microsoft) - ask for a score (1-5) in different categories, e.g. fluency, relevance, …
  • Human-like Summarization Evaluation with ChatGPT (gao…wan, 2023) - prompt-based scoring of different categories, facts
  • Question-answering
    • FActScore: Fine-grained Atomic Evaluation of Factual Precision in Long Form Text Generation (min…hajishirzi, 2023) - breaks a generation into a series of facts and count what fraction of facts are supported by a reliable knowledge source
    • PRD: Peer Rank and Discussion Improve Large Language Model based Evaluations (li…du, 2023)
  • Machine-translation
  • General NLG
    • ChatEval: Towards Better LLM-based Evaluators through Multi-Agent Debate (chan…liu, 2023)
    • AlignScore: Evaluating Factual Consistency with a Unified Alignment Function (zha…hu, 2023) - train a model to explicitly evaluate factual consistency
    • Not All Metrics Are Guilty: Improving NLG Evaluation with LLM Paraphrasing (tang…wei, 2023)
  • Classical eval
    • ROUGE, BLEU
    • BERTScore, BLEURTScore

Trained llms

privacy

  • Training Data Extraction From Pre-trained Language Models: A Survey (ishihara, 2023)
    • definitions
      • (eidetic memorization). A string s is k-eidetic memorized by LLMf if a prompt p exists such that f(p) = s and s appears at most k times in the training set
        • slightly different definition: A string s is k-memorized with k tokens of context from LLM f if a (length-k) string p exists such that the concatenation p + s is contained in the training set, and f produces s when prompted with p by using greedy decoding
      • Differential privacy = removing any data from the training set should not considerably change trained models
      • counterfactual memorization = difference between a training data’s expected loss under a model that has and has not been trained on that data
      • some studies loosen the definition of memorization using a similarity metric for strings rather than exact string matching
  • Extracting Training Data from Large Language Models (carlini, …, raffel, 2021) - LLMs are particularly likely to memorize atypical data points
    • Quantifying Memorization Across Neural Language Models (carlini, …, zhang, 2022)
    • What does it mean for a language model to preserve privacy? (brown, …, tramer, 2022) - “privacy-preserving” LM should guarantee that a user’s data cannot ever appear (or be inferable) outside the context they originally expected it to appear in
    • Can Neural Network Memorization Be Localized? (maini, …, lipton, kolter, zhang, 2023) - memorization is often confined to a small number of neurons or channels, propose example-tied dropout to direct memorization to few neurons
  • Detecting Personal Information in Training Corpora: an Analysis (subramani, luccioni, dodge, & mitchell, 2023)

embeddings

  • Instructor: One Embedder, Any Task: Instruction-Finetuned Text Embeddings (su, …, smith, zettlemoyer, yu, 2022) - embedding is contextualized to eaach task
  • Text Embeddings Reveal (Almost) As Much As Text (2023)
  • Explaining embeddings
    • Computer-vision focused
      • Axiomatic Explanations for Visual Search, Retrieval, and Similarity Learning (hamilton, lundberg…freeman, 2021) - add in “second-order” methods that look at similarities between different image features in the 2 images being compared
      • Why do These Match? Explaining the Behavior of Image Similarity Models (plummer…saenko, forsyth, 2020) - generate saliency map + with an attribute based on the salient region
      • Towards Visually Explaining Similarity Models (zheng…wu, 2020) - similarity of cnn embeddings
    • Explaining similarity with different outputs
      • Analogies and Feature Attributions for Model Agnostic Explanation of Similarity Learners (ramamurthy…tariq, 2022) - returned explanation is an analogy (pair from the training set) rather than a saliency map
      • Sim2Word: Explaining Similarity with Representative Attribute Words via Counterfactual Explanations (chen…cao, 2023) - give both saliency map + counterfactual explanation

basics

  • attention = vector of importance weights
    • to predict or infer one element, such as a pixel in an image or a word in a sentence, we estimate using the attention vector how strongly it is correlated with (or “attends to” other elements and take the sum of their values weighted by the attention vector as the approximation of the target
  • vanilla transformer: multihead attention, add + norm, position-wise ffn, add + norm
  • self-attention layer implementation, mathematics, and chandan’s self-attention cheat-sheet

mathematical overview of transformers (Formal Algorithms for Transformers)

  • tasks
    • sequence modeling: learn $p(x)$, usually factorized as $p(x_i x_1,…,x_{i-1})$
    • sequence-to-sequence: learn $p(z x)$, e.g. transalation, speech-to-text, question answering
  • preprocessing
    • embedding matrix takes in one-hot tokens and linearly maps them to a vector
    • positional embedding of a token is usually added to the token embedding to form a token’s initial embedding
  • attention types
    • Bidirectional / unmasked self-attention - primary/context vectors are the same
    • Unidirectional / masked self-attention - mask scores from before a given word
    • Cross-attention - primary/context vectors can come from different places
  • non-attention
    • layernorm: controls mean/variance of activations
      • RMSnorm: simpler version, sets mean/offset to zero
  • unembedding
    • linear layer (with softmax) that outputs size of original vocab
      • sometimes fixed to be transpose of the embedding matrix
  • predictions
    • predict next word using single linear layer on hidden state from previous word
    • finetune classification head often only using linear layer on first token from sequence
  • architectures
    • initially, encoder-decoder was common, but now often no decoder

visual explanation (notes on article by jay allamar)

  • **self-attention ** - layer that lets word learn its relation to other layers
    • for each word, want score telling how much importance to place on each other word (queries $\cdot$ keys)
    • we get an encoding for each word
      • the encoding of each word returns a weighted sum of the values of the words (the current word gets the highest weight)
      • softmax this and use it to do weighted sum of valuesScreen Shot 2019-08-17 at 2.51.53 PM
    • (optional) implementation details
      • multi-headed attention - just like having many filters, get many encodings for each word
        • each one can take input as the embedding from the previous attention layer
      • position vector - add this into the embedding of each word (so words know how far apart they are) - usually use sin/cos rather than actual position number
      • padding mask - add zeros to the end of the sequence
      • look-ahead mask - might want to mask to only use previous words (e.g. if our final task is decoding)
      • residual + normalize - after self-attention layer, often have residual connection to previous input, which gets added then normalized
    • decoder - each word only allowed to attend to previous positions
    • 3 components
      • queries
      • keys
      • values
  • attention
    • encoder reads input and ouputs context vector after each word
    • decoder at each step uses a different weighted combination of these context vectors
      • specifically, at each step, decoder concatenates its hidden state w/ the attention vector (the weighted combination of the context vectors)
      • this is fed to a feedforward net to output a word
      • Screen Shot 2019-04-11 at 7.57.14 PM
    • at a high level we have $Q, K, V$ and compute $\text{softmax}(QK^T)V$
      • instead could simplify it and do $\text{softmax}(XX^T)V$ - this would then be based on kernel
  • transformer
    • uses many self-attention layers
    • many stacked layers in encoder + decoder (not rnn: self-attention + feed forward)
    • details
      • initial encoding: each word -> vector
      • each layer takes a list of fixed size (hyperparameter e.g. length of longest sentence) and outputs a list of that same fixed size (so one output for each word)
        • can easily train with a masked word to predict the word at the predicted position in the encoding
    • multi-headed attention has several of each of these (then just concat them)

huggingface tutorial

Broadly, models can be grouped into three categories:

  • GPT-like (also called auto-regressive Transformer models)
  • BERT-like (also called auto-encoding Transformer models)
  • BART/T5-like (also called sequence-to-sequence Transformer models)
  • Handling multiple sequences - Hugging Face Course
    • pad sequences to have the same length (need to modify attention masks to ignore the padded values)

pre-transformer nlp models

  • rnns
    • when training rnn, accumulate gradients over sequence and then update all at once
    • stacked rnns have outputs of rnns feed into another rnn
    • bidirectional rnn - one rnn left to right and another right to left (can concatenate, add, etc.)
  • standard seq2seq
    • encoder reads input and outputs context vector (the hidden state)
    • decoder (rnn) takes this context vector and generates a sequence