deep learning

view markdown# neural networks

- basic perceptron update rule
- if output is 0 but should be 1: raise weights on active connections by d
- if output is 1 but should be 0: lower weights on active connections by d

*perceptron convergence thm*- if data is linearly separable, perceptron learning algorithm wiil converge- transfer / activation functions
- sigmoid(z) = $\frac{1}{1+e^{-z}}$
- Binary step
- TanH (always preferred to sigmoid)
- Rectifier = ReLU
- Leaky ReLU - still has some negative slope when <0
- rectifying in electronics converts analog -> digital

- rare to mix and match neuron types

*deep*- more than 1 hidden layer- regression loss = $\frac{1}{2}(y-\hat{y})^2$
- classification loss = $-y log (\hat{y}) - (1-y) log(1-\hat{y})$
- can’t use SSE because not convex here

- multiclass classification loss $=-\sum_j y_j ln \hat{y}_j$
**backpropagation**- application of*reverse mode automatic differentiation*to neural networks’s loss- apply the chain rule from the end of the program back towards the beginning
- $\frac{dL}{dx_i} = \frac{dL}{dz} \frac{\partial z}{\partial x_i}$
- sum $\frac{dL}{dz}$ if neuron has multiple outputs z
- L is output

- $\frac{\partial z}{\partial x_i}$ is actually a Jacobian (deriv each $z_i$ wrt each $x_i$ - these are vectors)
- each gate usually has some sparsity structure so you don’t compute whole Jacobian

- apply the chain rule from the end of the program back towards the beginning
- pipeline
- initialize weights, and final derivative ($\frac{dL}{dL}=1$)
- for each batch
- run network forward to compute outputs at each step
- compute gradients at each gate with backprop
- update weights with SGD

# training

*vanishing gradients problem*- neurons in earlier layers learn more slowly than in later layers- happens with sigmoids
- dead ReLus

*exploding gradients problem*- gradients are significantly larger in earlier layers than later layers- RNNs

*batch normalization*- whiten inputs to all neurons (zero mean, variance of 1)- do this for each input to the next layer

*dropout*- randomly zero outputs of p fraction of the neurons during training- like learning large ensemble of models that share weights
- 2 ways to compensate (pick one)
- at test time multiply all neurons’ outputs by p
- during training divide all neurons’ outputs by p

*softmax*- takes vector z and returns vector of the same length- makes it so output sums to 1 (like probabilities of classes)

# tricks to squeeze out performance

- ensemble models
- (stochastic) weight averaging can help a lot
- test-time augmentation
- this could just be averaging over dropout resamples as well

- gradient checkpointing (2016 paper)
- 10x larger DNNs into memory with 20% increase in comp. time
- save gradients for a carefully chosen layer to let you easily recompute

# CNNs

- kernel here means filter
- convolution G- takes a windowed average of an image F with a filter H where the filter is flipped horizontally and vertically before being applied
- G = H $\ast$ F
- if we do a filter with just a 1 in the middle, we get the exact same image
- you can basically always pad with zeros as long as you keep 1 in middle
- can use these to detect edges with small convolutions
- can do Guassian filters

- convolutions typically sum over all color channels
- 1x1 conv - still convolves over channels
- pooling - usually max - doesn’t pool over depth
- people trying to move away from this - larger strides in conversation layers
- stacking small layers is generally better

- most of memory impact is usually from activations from each layer kept around for backdrop
- visualizations
- layer activations (maybe average over channels)
- visualize the weights (maybe average over channels)v
- feed a bunch of images and keep track of which activate a neuron most
- t-SNE embedding of images
- occluding

- weight matrices have special structure (Toeplitz or block Toeplitz)
- input layer is usually centered (subtract mean over training set)
- usually crop to fixed size (square input)
- receptive field - input region
- stride m - compute only every mth pixel
- downsampling
- max pooling - backprop error back to neuron w/ max value
- average pooling - backprop splits error equally among input neurons

- data augmentation - random rotations, flips, shifts, recolorings
- siamese networks - extract features twice with same net then put layer on top
- ex. find how similar to representations are

- famous cnns
- LeNet (1998)
- first, used on MNIST

- AlexNet (2012)
- landmark (5 conv layers, some pooling/dropout)

- ZFNet (2013)
- fine tuning and deconvnet

- VGGNet (2014)
- 19 layers, all 3x3 conv layers and 2x2 maxpooling

- GoogLeNet (2015)
- lots of parallel elements (called
*Inception module*) - Msft ResNet (2015)
- very deep - 152 layers
- connections straight from initial layers to end
- only learn “residual” from top to bottom

- very deep - 152 layers
- Region Based CNNs (R-CNN - 2013, Fast R-CNN - 2015, Faster R-CNN - 2015)
- object detection

- Karpathy Generating image descriptions (2014)
- RNN+CNN

- Spatial transformer networks (2015)
- transformations within the network

- Segnet (2015)
- encoder-decoder network

- Unet (2015)
- Ronneberger - applies to biomedical segmentation

- Pixelnet (2017)
- predicts pixel-level for different tasks with the same architecture
- convolutional layers then 3 FC layers which use outputs from all convolutional layrs together

- Squeezenet
- Yolonet
- Wavenet
- Densenet
- NASNET
- Efficientnet (2019)

- lots of parallel elements (called

- LeNet (1998)

# architectural components

**coordconv**- break translation equivariance by passing in i, j coords as extra filters**deconvolution**= transposed convolution = fractionally-strided convolution - like upsampling**attention**- attention ovw: https://lilianweng.github.io/lil-log/2018/06/24/attention-attention.html
- vector of importance weights: in order to predict or infer one element, such as a pixel in an image or a word in a sentence, we estimate using the attention vector how strongly it is correlated with (or “
*attends to*” as you may have read in many papers) other elements and take the sum of their values weighted by the attention vector as the approximation of the target. - attention born to solve problem of going from arbitrary length -> fixed length encoding -> arbitrary length output

# recent trends

- architecture search: learning to learn
*optimal brain damage*- starts with fully connected and weeds out connections (Lecun)*tiling*- train networks on the error of previous networks

# RNNs

- feedforward NNs have no memory so we introduce recurrent NNs
- able to have memory
- could theoretically unfold the network and train with backprop
- truncated - limit number of times you unfold
- $state_{new} = f(state_{old},input_t)$
- ex. $h_t = tanh(W h_{t-1}+W_2 x_t)$
- train with backpropagation through time (unfold through time)
- truncated backprop through time - only run every k time steps

- error gradients vanish exponentially quickly with time lag

## LSTMs

- have gates for forgetting, input, output
- easy to let hidden state flow through time, unchanged
- gate $\sigma$ - pointwise multiplication
- multiply by 0 - let nothing through
- multiply by 1 - let everything through

- forget gate - conditionally discard previously remembered info
- input gate - conditionally remember new info
- output gate - conditionally output a relevant part of memory
- GRUs - similar, merge input / forget units into a single update unit \vert

# adversarial attacks

**adversarial attack**- designing an input to get the wrong result from the model**targeted**- try to get specific wrong class

- fast gradient step method - keep adding gradient to maximize noise (limit amplitude of pixel’s channel to stay imperceptible)

# transformers

- transformers original paper
- http://colah.github.io/posts/2014-03-NN-Manifolds-Topology/

# graph neural networks

- Theoretical Foundations of Graph Neural Networks
- inputs are graphs
- e.g. molecule input to classification
- one big study: “a deep learning appraoch to antibiotic discovery” - using GNN classification of antibiotic resistance, came up with 100 candidate antibiotics and were able to test them

- e.g. traffic maps - nodes are intersections
- invariances in CNNs: translational, neighbor pixels relate a lot more
- simplest setup: no edges, each node $i$ has a feature vector $x_i$ (really a set not a graph)
- X is a matrix where each row is a feature vector
- note that permuting rows of X shouldn’t change anything
**permutation invariant**: $f(PX) = f(X)$ for all permutation matrices $P$- e.g. $\mathbf{P}
*{(2,4,1,3)} \mathbf{X}=\left[\begin{array}{llll}0 & 1 & 0 & 0 \ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 \ 1 & 0 & 0 & 0 \ 0 & 0 & 1 & 0\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{lll}- & \mathbf{x}*{1} & - \ - & \mathbf{x}*{2} & - \ - & \mathbf{x}*{3} & - \ - & \mathbf{x}*{4} & -\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{lll}- & \mathbf{x}*{2} & - \ - & \mathbf{x}*{4} & - \ - & \mathbf{x}*{1} & - \ - & \mathbf{x}_{3} & -\end{array}\right]$ - ex.
*Deep Sets*model (zaheer et al. ‘17): $f(X) = \phi \left (\sum_k \psi(x_i) \right)$

- e.g. $\mathbf{P}
**permutation equivariant**: $f(PX) = P f(X)$ - useful for when we want answers at the node level

- graph: augment set of nodes with edges between them (store as an adjacency matrix)
- permuting permutation matrix to A requires operating on both rows and cols: $PAP^T$
- permutation invariance: $ f\left(\mathbf{P X}, \mathbf{P A P}^{\top}\right)=f(\mathbf{X}, \mathbf{A})$
- permutation equivariance: $f\left(\mathbf{P X}, \mathbf{P A P}^{\top}\right)=\mathbf{P} f(\mathbf{X}, \mathbf{A})$
- can now write an equivariant function that is extracts features not only of X, but also its neighbors: $g(x_b, X_{\mathcal N_b})$
- tasks: node classification, graph classification, link (edge) prediction)

- 3 flavors of GNN layers for extracting features from nodes / neighbors: simplest to most complex
- message-passing actually passes vectors to be sent across edges

- previous approaches map on to gnns well
- GNNs explicitly construct local features, much like previous works
- local objectives: features of nodes i and j should predict existence of edge $(i, j)$
- random-walk objectives: features should be similar if i and j co-occur on a short random walk (e.g. deepwalk, node2vec, line)

- similarities to NLP if we think of words as nodes and sentences as walks
- we can think of transformers as fully-connect graph networks with attentional form of GNN layers
- one big difference: positional embeddings often used, making the input not clearly a graph
- these postitional embeddings often take the form of sin/cos - very similar to DFT eigenvectors of a graph

- one big difference: positional embeddings often used, making the input not clearly a graph

- we can think of transformers as fully-connect graph networks with attentional form of GNN layers
- spectral gnns
- operate on graph laplacian matrix $L = D - A$ where $D$ is degree matrix and $A$ is adjacency matrix - more mathematically convenient

- probabilistic modeling - e.g. assome markov random field and try to learn parameters
- this connects well to a message-passing GNN

- GNNs explicitly construct local features, much like previous works

- GNN limitations
- ex. can we tell whether 2 graphs are isomorphic - often no?
- cank make GNNs more powerful by adding positional features, etc.
- can also embed sugraphs together
- things are more difficult in continuous case…

- geometric deep learning: invariances and equivariances can be appllied generally to get a large calss of architectures between convolutions and graphs

# misc

- adaptive pooling can help deal with different sizes
- NeRF: Representing Scenes as Neural Radiance Fields for View Synthesis
- given multiple views, generate depth map + continuous volumetric repr.
- dnn is overfit to only one scene
- inputs: a position and viewing direction
- output: for that position, density (is there smth at this location) + color (if there is smth at this location)
- then, given new location / angle, send a ray through for each pixel and see color when it hits smth
- Implicit Neural Representations with Periodic Activation Functions
- similar paper