7.1. disease¶

7.1.1. TIPs - using viruses for treatment¶

  • Leor Weinberger: Can we create vaccines that mutate and spread? | TED Talk

    • viruses mutate, our drugs don’t

    • adherence / deployment - hard to give certain the drugs

    • idea: uses viruses as treatment

      • than superspreaders will spread treatment to others

      • replaces hiv instruction set with amputated instruction set which is not harmful

      • “therapeutic interfering particles” or “TIPs” are engineered deletion mutants designed to piggyback on a virus and deprive the virus of replication material

7.1.2. alzheimer’s¶

  • overview

    • age-associated - tons of people get it

    • doesn’t kill you, secondary complications like pneumonia will kill you

    • rate is going up

    • very expensive to treat

  • declarative memories are affected by Alzheimer’s

    • these are memories that you know

  • first 2 areas to go in Alzheimer’s

    1. hippocampus

      • patient HM had no hippocampus

        • no anterograde memory - learning new things

      • hippocampus stores 1 day of info

        • offloading occurs during sleep (REM sleep) to prefrontal cortex, temporal lobe, V4

        • dreaming - might see images as you are offloading

    2. basal forebrain - spread synapses all over cortex

      • uses Ach

      • ignition key for entire cortex

  • alzheimer’s characteristics only found in autopsy

    • amyloid plaques

      • maybe A-beta causes it

      • A-beta comes from APP

      • A-beta42 binds to itself

        • prion (starts making more of itself)

        • this cycle could be exacerbated by injury

        • clumps and attracts immune system which kills local important cells

          • this could cause Alzheimer’s

        • rare genetic mutations in A-beta increase probability you get Alzheimer’s

        • anti-inflammation may be too late

        • can take drugs that increase Ach functions - ex. cholinergic agonists, cholinesterase inhibitors

    • tangles

      • tangles made of protein called Tau

    • most people think these are just dead cells resulting from Alzheimer’s but some think they cause it

7.1.3. parkinson’s¶

  • loss of substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons

    • when you get down to 20% what you were born with

    • dopaminergic neurons form melanin = dark color

    • hits to head can give inflammation

  • know what they need to do - don’t have enough dopamine to act

  • treat with L Dopa -> something like dopamine -> take out globus pallidus

  • Lewy bodies are clumps of alpha synuclein - appear at dopaminergic synapses

    • clumps like A-beta42

    • associated with early-onset Parkinson’s (rare) associated with genetic mutations

  • bradykinesia - slowness of movement

  • age can give parksinson’s

  • no evidence that toxins can induce parkinsons

  • PTP/ pesticides can induce Parkinson’s in test animals

  • 1/500 people